Back lighting is when the light source is facing towards the viewer with the subject in between, This causes the subject to darken and sometimes causes a glow around the edges of the subject. Back lighting is the process of illuminating a subject from the background and often creates a silhouette effect.
Front lighting is a lighting technique in which the light source is directly in front of the subject. This accentuates details of the subject, however it often results in the subject looking flat particularly in portraits.
Soft lighting is when a light source creates a wraparound effect upon a subject this causes no harsh edges. Soft light means that the light that falls on the subject comes from multiple sources, from multiple directions or from a single, very large light source quite close to the subject that avoids harsh bright and dark areas, creating a gradual transition from highlights to shadows.
Hard light is light that comes from a single source, such as a light bulb, and falls directly on the subject from one direction without being reflected off other surfaces. It generally casts dark shadows and produces high contrast pictures with deep black and bright highlights. The shadows also generally have a very distinct or hard edge, so that the outline of the object closely reflects the shape of the shadow.
Studio lighting doesn't mean it has to be set up in a studio, it can be used in various locations. The most common lights used on studio lighting are strobe, HMI, tungsten and fluorescent. Umbrellas and soft boxes are also used with the lighting. Soft boxes generates a shadow less diffuse light from a large surface. Umbrellas reflect the light and generally create a defused light source.
Natural lighting is the most accessible form of lighting. Natural lighting is either daylight (sunlight) or moonlight.
Torch lighting is illuminating certain areas of a subject by pointing it directly towards the subject to create a spotlight effect.
Laser lighting is commonly used in light paintings.They are created by using various coloured laser pens and a camera with a slow shutter. It is better to use a DSLR rather than a SLR as you can view your image straight away after the image is taken.